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How to get water for outdoor camping？
When in distress, especially in hot areas and desert areas, the supply of water is crucial.
(1) Water sources
Nature's water sources are the following.
- Surface water: such as rivers, lakes, streams, etc.
- Groundwater: such as wells, springs, underground reservoirs, etc.
- Biological water: such as some plants contain sufficient water, such as cactus, bamboo, cactus, etc.
- Heavenly water: such as rain, snow, dew and melted ice, etc.
Rainwater, spring water, well water, and streams flowing in the mountains can be consumed directly. However, still or slow-moving water contains a lot of organic matter and bacteria and needs to be purified before drinking. Purification is the elimination of organic matter in the water, disinfection, and removal of odors. In distress survival conditions, the following simple methods can be used to purify drinking water.
- Find a container, such as a canvas bag, polyethylene plastic bag, a large tin can, one end of a sock, all of which can be used as a container?
- Lay a layer of fine gravel at the bottom of the container, then lay a layer of sand, a layer of charcoal powder, so repeatedly lay many times, the more layers the better, each layer of about 2.5 cm thick. If there is no sand, use fine gravel instead.
- Drill some small holes in the bottom of the container, pour the water into the container and use the cup below to take it.
In addition, there is a way to purify the water, half a meter from the water source to dig a shallow pit, after some time, the pit will seep out of the clear and clean water too.
- Boiling disinfection. At sea level, boil for at least 1 minute; in higher altitude areas to extend the time, every 1000 meters higher in altitude, boiling time can be increased by 3 to 4 minutes.
- Chemical disinfection. Disinfectants are dichlorosulfanilic acid, iodide, halazone, etc. Put 2 tablets of dichlorosulfanilic acid in 1 liter of water and leave it for 15-30 minutes to achieve disinfection. Without this agent, you can put 8-10 drops of iodine sprinkles in each liter of water.
If bacteria are to be killed one of the following methods must be followed.
- Purification water tablets are the easiest to use. Before you enter the desert, you can buy some from the pharmacy and use them according to the instructions of the tablets. Not only do you need them for self-rescue and in cars and airplanes, but you should also keep some at home for emergencies.
In general, 1 water purification tablet is enough to purify 1 liter of clean water and 2 tablets can purify 1 liter of cloudy water. Allow the purified water to settle for 30 minutes before use.
- Iodine Add 3 drops per liter of clean water, double for turbid water. Let it settle for 30 minutes and then prepare for use.
- Domestic bleach (5.25% sodium chlorite) Add 2 drops per liter of water and 4 drops for cloudy water. Shake the water for a while and use it after 30 minutes of sedimentation. The bleached water will have a very light chlorite taste. -Boiling the water for 3 to 5 minutes will also purify it.
- Add a little carbon to the water while boiling the water to remove the off-color. Stir the water to ventilate it to cool and restore its taste or add a pinch of salt.